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Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer  some dating back to BC.
There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about BC and those at Nineveh about BC showing a library classification system. The tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves.
The colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, and any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. Eventually, the clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Unfortunately, due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, which is why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia.
The library was built to store 12, scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus.
Private or personal libraries made up of written books as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity were listed in the late 2nd century in Deipnosophistae.
All these libraries were Greek. The cultivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence. By the time of Augustus, there were public libraries near the forums of Rome. The state archives were kept in a structure on the slope between the Roman Forum and the Capitoline Hill.
Private libraries appeared during the late republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by illiterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases armaria of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: Remains of the Library of Celsus at Ephesus In the West, the first public libraries were established under the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor.
Pollio was a lieutenant of Julius Caesar and one of his most ardent supporters. After his military victory in Illyria, Pollio felt he had enough fame and fortune to create what Julius Caesar had sought for a long time: It was the first to employ an architectural design that separated works into Greek and Latin.
All subsequent Roman public libraries will have this design. During this construction, Augustus created two more public libraries. The first was the library of the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine, often called the Palatine libraryand the second was the library of the Porticus of Octaviae.
The Bibliotheca Pacis was built along the traditional model and had two large halls with rooms for Greek and Latin libraries containing the works of Galen and Lucius Aelius. Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself.
The surviving records give only a few instances of lending features. Most of the large Roman baths were also cultural centres, built from the start with a library, a two-room arrangement with one room for Greek and one for Latin texts. Libraries were filled with parchment scrolls as at Library of Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria: There were a few institutional or royal libraries which were open to an educated public such as the Serapeum collection of the Library of Alexandriaonce the largest library in the ancient world but on the whole collections were private.
In those rare cases where it was possible for a scholar to consult library books, there seems to have been no direct access to the stacks.
In all recorded cases, the books were kept in a relatively small room where the staff went to get them for the readers, who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered walkway.
Most of the works in catalogs were of a religious nature, such as volumes of the Bible or religious service books. In the early Middle Ages, Aristotle was more popular.
Additionally, there was quite a bit of censoring within libraries of the time; many works that were "scientific and metaphysical" were not included in the majority of libraries during that time period.
Cicero was also an especially popular author along with the histories of Sallust. One of the most popular was Ovid, mentioned by approximately twenty French catalogues and nearly thirty German ones.
Han Chinese scholar Liu Xiang established the first library classification system during the Han dynasty and the first book notation system. At this time, the library catalogue was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags.
Malatestiana Library of Cesenathe first European civic library  During the Late Antiquity and Middle Ages periods, there was no Rome of the kind that ruled the Mediterranean for centuries and spawned the culture that produced twenty-eight public libraries in the urbs Roma. Christianity was a new force in Europe and many of the faithful saw Hellenistic culture as pagan.
As such, many classical Greek works, written on scrolls, were left to decay as only Christian texts were thought fit for preservation in a codex, the progenitor of the modern book. Thus a seventeenth-century edition of the Ignatian epistles, in Mar Saba, had copied onto its last pages, probably in the early eighteenth century, a passage allegedly from the letters of Clement of Alexandria".
In Byzantium, much of this work devoted to preserving Hellenistic thought in codex form was performed in scriptoriums by monks. These libraries were devoted solely to the education of the monks and were seen as essential to their spiritual development. As a result, many of these Greek works were copied, and thus saved, in monastic scriptoriums.Founded in , Macmillan Publishers is one of the largest global trade book publishers and home to numerous bestselling and award-winning fiction, nonfiction, and children’s books, from St.
Martin’s Press, Tor Books, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Henry Holt, Picador, Flatiron Books, Celadon Books, and Macmillan . Here’s a wealth of information about GARDEN HISTORY and HEIRLOOMS from our email Gazette and past catalogs, starting with the most recently published.
For . Founded in , Macmillan Publishers is one of the largest global trade book publishers and home to numerous bestselling and award-winning fiction, nonfiction, and children’s books, from St.
Martin’s Press, Tor Books, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Henry Holt, Picador, Flatiron Books, Celadon Books, and Macmillan . MetPublications is a portal to the Met's comprehensive book and online publishing program with close to titles published from to the present.
Essay about Ancient Aliens - There is a popular belief that aliens walked the Earth in ancient times, and these theories have created quite a stir in the scientific community.
The Ancient Catalogs Essays - 1. The Ancient Catalogs Astronomy was born in the five cradles of civilization, along the Nile Valley in Egypt, the Indus Valley along the western region of the Indian subcontinent, the Chinese city states on the banks of the Yellow River, the ancient regions of Me-soamerica from central Mexico down to the Andean.