Virtue ethics began with Socratesand was subsequently developed further by PlatoAristotleand the Stoics. Another way to say this is that in virtue ethics, morality stems from the identity or character of the individual, rather than being a reflection of the actions or consequences thereof of the individual.
Psychoanalysis is a system of psychology originated by the Viennese physician Sigmund FREUD in the 's and then further developed by himself, his students, and other followers. It consists of three kinds of related activities: Psychoanalysis began with the discovery that HYSTERIA, an illness with physical symptoms that occurred in a completely healthy physical body--such as a numbness or paralysis of a limb or a loss of voice or a blindness--could be caused by unconscious wishes or forgotten memories.
Hysteria is now commonly referred to as conversion disorder. Josef Breuer, a Viennese physician, achieved better results by letting Anna O. Freud refined Breuer's method by conceptualizing theories about it and, using these theories, telling his patients through interpretations what was going on inside the unconscious part of their minds, thus making the unconscious become conscious.
Many hysterias were cured this way, and inBreuer and Freud published their findings and theories in Studies in Hysteria. Two drives--one for sexual pleasure, called libido, the other called aggression--motivate and propel most behavior. In the infant, the libido first manifests itself by making sucking an activity with pleasurable sensations in the mouth.
Later similar pleasures are experienced in the anus during bowel movements, and finally these erotically tinged pleasures are experienced when the sexual organ is manipulated. Thus psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic stage.
Phallic, in psychoanalytic theory, refers to both male and female sexual organs. During the height of the phallic phase, about ages three to six, these libidinous drives focus on the parent of the opposite sex and lend an erotic cast to the relation between mother and son or between father and daughter, the so-called Oedipus COMPLEX.
However, most societies strongly disapprove of these sexual interests of children. Parents, therefore, influence children to push such pleasurable sensations and thoughts out of their conscious minds into the unconscious by a process called repression.
In this way the mind comes to consist of three parts: Strong boundaries between the three parts keep the ego fairly free from disturbing thoughts and wishes in the id, thereby guaranteeing efficient functioning and socially acceptable behavior.
During sleep the boundaries weaken; disturbing wishes may slip into the ego from the id, and warnings may come over from the superego. Freud elucidated this concept in his first major work, The Interpretation of Dreams ; Eng. Something very similar to the weakening of boundaries during sleep sometimes happens during ordinary daytime activities when some impulses from the id manages to cross the repression barrier to invade the ego and cause faulty actions such as slips of the tongue.
Psychoneurotic symptoms occur if psychologically hurtful experiences during childhood have left the repression too weak or have distorted the ego, or if overstimulation has left the id wishes too strong, or if the delicate balance between ego, id, and superego has been upset by injury or other events.
Any kind of psychic trauma may lead to the ego becoming an area of intrapsychic conflict between the intruding id, the threatening superego, and the powerful influences emanating from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, the damage done to the basic psychological structures by traumatic experiences leaves those structures weakened and with defective functioning.
In order to keep functioning effectively, the ego attempts to maintain control by achieving some sort of compromise between the contending forces. Often such compromises appear in the form of inhibitions or compulsions that affect behavior. Abnormal behavior and the anxiety, depressions, and PHOBIAS that go with them are called psychoneurotic symptoms in psychoanalytic theory.
Neurotic character is the phrase used to designate a consistent pattern of neurotic behavior. When the damage abnormally distorts self-esteem, the resulting disturbance is called a narcissistic personality disorder, or a disorder of the self. Patients seek psychoanalytic treatment because they suffer from one or more of a variety of psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, sexual and other inhibitions, obsessive thoughts, compulsive actions, irrational angers, shyness and timidity, phobias, inability to get along with friends or spouses or co- workers, low self-esteem, a sense of feeling unfulfilled, nervous irritability, and blocked creativity.
The defects and repressed conflicts that cause these symptoms are usually indicative of a psychoneurosis or a narcissistic personality disorder. Normal ego functioning and the joy of life that comes with easy relationship to others are seriously interfered with or sometimes lost altogether.
Psychoanalysis does not promise a quick cure but holds out the hope that through better understanding of oneself and of others one can achieve an amelioration of symptoms as well as a smoother and more effective socialization of one's behavior.
Psychological maladaptations usually originate from painful misunderstandings or outright failures in the child's relationship to his or her parents.
Sometimes parents lack the appropriate and attuned empathic understanding that children need. Sometimes severe physical or mental illness or the death of a parent or sibling causes serious psychic wounds. Consequently, even in adults, there remain ever-present though usually unconscious fears that the early hurtful experiences will now be repeated again with others.
Transference is the unconscious expectation that the old injuries and insults will now again be suffered, only this time at the hands of friends, spouses, children, bosses, just about anybody--as if transferred from the past into the present.Kohlberg's conception of justice follows that of the philosophers Kant and Rawls, as well as great moral leaders such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King.
According to these people, the principles of justice require us to treat the claims of all parties in an impartial manner, respecting the basic dignity, of all people as individuals. Moral intensity captures the degree to which an issue has ethical urgency, while moral attentiveness captures the degree to which people chronically perceive .
Ch. 7 Moral Development, Values, and Religion. STUDY. PLAY. a. One is called mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity.
The other is called placed too much emphasis on moral thought. B) may not have done high-quality research. C) may have underestimated the care perspective. A virtue ethics philosopher will identify virtues, desirable characteristics, that the moral or virtuous person embodies.
Possessing these virtues, in virtue ethics, is what makes one moral, and one's actions are a mere reflection of one's inner morality. Great Expectations: God's Law vs. Human Law In his book Great Expectations, the problematic nature of moral judgement and justice that stems from a conflict between God's law and human College Essays / Great Expectations: Symbolism.
- Book review of Great Expectations ===== Great Expectations is a tale of a young man raised high above his position in society by a mysterious person. Despite the book lacking in length, it more than makes up for in its remarkable characters and gripping story.