It was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzbergwho theorized that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act independently of each other. His findings have had a considerable theoretical, as well as a practical, influence on attitudes toward administration.
They must be fulfilled before the others are activated. There is some basic common sense here -- it's pointless to worry about whether a given color looks good on you when you are dying of starvation, or being threatened with your life.
There are some basic things that take precedence over all else. Or at least logically should, if people were rational. But is that a safe assumption? According to the theory, if you are hungry and have inadequate shelter, you won't go to church.
Can't do the higher things until you have the lower things. But the poor tend to be more religious than the rich. Both within a given culture, and across nations. So the theory makes the wrong prediction here. Do all physiological needs including sex have to be satisfied before "higher" needs?
Besides, wouldn't the authors of the Kama Sutra argue that sex was a kind of self-expression more like art than a physiological need? Again, the theory doesn't seem to predict correctly. Does Maslow's classification really reflect the order in which needs are satisfied, or is it more about classifying needs from a kind of "tastefulness" perspective, with lofty goals like personal growth and creativity at the top, and "base" instincts like sex and hunger at the bottom?
And is self-actualization actually a fundamental need? Or just something that can be done if you have the leisure time?
Alderfer's ERG theory Alderfer classifies needs into three categories, also ordered hierarchically: But maybe a bit more rational.
For example, in Alderfer's model, sex does not need to be in the bottom category as it is in Maslow's model, since it is not crucial to the individual's existence.
Remember, this about individual motivation, not species' survival. So by moving sex, this theory does not predict that people have to have sex before they can think about going to school, like Maslow's theory does.
Alderfer believed that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense e. Do any of these theories have anything useful to say for managing businesses?
Well, if true, they suggest that Not everyone is motivated by the same things. It depends where you are in the hierarchy think of it as a kind of personal development scale The needs hierarchy probably mirrors the organizational hierarchy to a certain extent: Acquired Needs Theory mcclellan Some needs are acquired as a result of life experiences need for achievement, accomplish something difficult.
Again similar to maslow and alderfer. These needs can be measured using the TAT thematic apperception testwhich is a projection-style test based on interpreting stories that people tell about a set of pictures. Cognitive Evaluation Theory This theory suggests that there are actually two motivation systems: Achievement, responsibility and competence.
One or the other of these may be a more powerful motivator for a given individual.
Intrinsically motivated individuals perform for their own achievement and satisfaction.Nursing Of The Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory - Nursing Theorist Dorothea Orem Dorothea Orem, a Baltimore native, was one of America’s foremost nursing theorists with a wide variety of nursing experiences that influenced her development of the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT).
Douglas McGregor's XY Theory, managing an X Theory boss, and William Ouchi's Theory Z. Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise'. Expectancy theory in comparison to the other motivation theories. There is a useful link between Vroom's expectancy theory and Adam's Equity theory of motivation: namely that people will also compare outcomes for themselves with others.
Vroom's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain.
Vroom realized that an employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, . Overview. At a simple level, it seems obvious that people do things, such as go to work, in order to get stuff they want and to avoid stuff they don't want. Some of the most important theories of motivation are as follows: 1.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory 2. Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory 3. McClelland’s Need Theory 4. McGregor’s Participation Theory 5.
Urwick’s Theory Z 6. Argyris’s Theory 7. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 8. Porter and.